Pc Flower

Borage is also edible, both its leaves and its flowers...it is a bit coarse but you'll get used to it
Borage is also edible, both its leaves and its flowers…it is a bit coarse but you’ll get used to it
Flowers from my garden
Flowers from my garden
More flowers from my garden
More flowers from my garden

Permaculture may be seen through different practices, philosophies and approaches that share common goals or means (some of them are older than Permaculture, some newer and some were born from the same need of creating a different lenses and relationship with the world around and within us.

David Holmgren developed the concept of the “Permaculture Flower”, the information below corresponds to the different Permaculture flower “petals”, I have taken the liberty of adding some new practices/concepts as I find them fit to the original.

Each one of the flower petals can be used to develop a different career path or practice in your life, however, Permaculture is, by nature, holistic and it is encouraged that people try as many of the following options as possible, even when natural inclinations, skills and needs may influence your choices:

Land & Nature Stewardship:

  • Bio-intensive gardening
  • Forest gardening
  • Seed saving
  • Organic agriculture
  • Biodynamics
  • Natural farming
  • Keyline water harvesting
  • Holistic rangeland management
  • Natural sequence farming
  • Nature-based forestry
  • Integrated aquaculture
  • Wild harvesting & hunting
  • Gleaning


  • Passive solar design
  • Natural construction materials
  • Water harvesting & waste reuse
  • Biotechture
  • Earth sheltered construction
  • Natural disaster resistant construction
  • Owner building
  • Pattern language

Tools & Technology:

  • Reuse & creative recycling
  • Hand tools
  • Bicycles and electric bikes
  • Efficient and low pollution wooden stoves
  • Fuels from organic wastes
  • Wood gasification
  • Bio-char from forest wastes
  • Co-generation
  • Micro-hydro and small scale wind
  • Grid-tied renewable power generation
  • Energy storage
  • Transition engineering

Education & Culture:

  • Home schooling
  • Waldorf education
  • Participatory arts and music
  • Social ecology
  • Action research
  • Transition culture
  • Holistic education and social pedagogy (added by me)

Health & Spiritual Well Being:

  • Home birth & breast feeding
  • Complementary & holistic medicine
  • Yoga, tai chi & other
  • Body-mind/spirit disciplines
  • Spirit of place, indigenous cultural revival
  • Dying with dignity

Finances & Economics:

  • Local and regional currencies
  • Carpooling, ride sharing and car share
  • Ethical investment and fair trade
  • Farmers markets and community
  • Community Supported agriculture (CSA)
  • WWOOFing and similar networks and practices
  • Tradable energy quotas
  • Life cycle analysis and energy accounting
  • Sharing and gift economies (added by me)
  • Caretaker/house-sitting and exchange practices (added by me)
  • Social entrepreneurship (added by me)
  • The Right livelihood (added by me)

Land Tenure & Community Governance:

  • Cooperatives and body corporate
  • Cohousing and ecovillages
  • Native title and traditional use rights
  • Open space technology and consensus decision making
Nasturtiums flowers, leaves and even seeds are all edible and easy to grow
Nasturtiums flowers, leaves and even seeds are all edible and easy to grow
Nasturtiums and Borage from my garden
Nasturtiums and Borage from my garden

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